Canada

CANADA

 

This submission was prepared by Kay Cahill FRSA, BSc (Econ) and Jennifer Copley BFA BEd. of the Infodemons Information Consultancy (Canada) and edited by Kevin Cahill

 

Canada is a kingdom, also called a dominion, whose head of state is a Queen, Elizabeth 11. She is also Queen of the United Kingdom and of 32 other countries and territories. Canada was taken from France for the Crown of Great Britain following a battle near Quebec in 1759. The country retains a strong French influence especially in Quebec province, and has two official languages, English and French.

Population of Canada. 2005 census, 32.2 million people. The capital of Canada is Ottowa. Population of the capital 1,063,044. Canada is an independent kingdom and a member of the Commonwealth. Canada became a Dominion in 1867 and received a new Constitution in 1982 by way of amendment to the Canada Act of 1867. Total area of Canada: 2,467 million acres Of this area 2,247 million acres is land and 220 million acres are fresh water. The Europa World Yearbook 2004 describes Canada’s land area as the second largest in the world, after Russia.

The ownership factor is 1. The Queen is the sole legal owner of all the land of Canada. The private “holdership” factor, based on freehold tenure of housing is 67%. For all other land it is less than 9.7%, with over 90% of Canadian land remaining as Crown leasehold, administered for the Crown by various agencies and departments of the government of Canada

GNI in 2005 was $28,390 and Canada ranked 21 in the World Bank list

In the Economist Quality of Life survey Canada scored 7.59 and was ranked 21 out of 111 countries.

About 79% of the Canadian population is urban and there is no basic poverty in Canada.

There are 75.9 acres per person in Canada.

 

How Canada is owned

All physical land in Canada is the property of the Crown, Queen Elisabeth 11. There is no provision in the Canada Act, or in the Constitution Act 1982 which amends it, for any Canadian to own any physical land in Canada. All that Canadians may hold, in conformity with medieval and feudal law, is “an interest in an estate in land in fee simple”. Land defined as ‘Crown land’ in Canada, and administered by the Federal Government and the Provinces, is merely land not ‘dedicated’ or assigned in freehold tenure. Freehold is tenure, not ownership. Freehold land is ‘held’ not ‘owned’.

Canada, a vast territory dominating the north of the North American continent, was colonised by the British from 1497 when Cabot left Bristol and reached New Foundland. Subsequently, most of Canada fell under French control. In 1759, at the result of a single battle at Quebec, Britain took Canada from the French. In 1867 Canada became the first Crown colony to obtain self government within the Empire as a Dominion. Throughout most of the 19th century, it was the stated policy of the American political parties to annex Canada. They were prevented from doing so only by the threat of British sea power. Canada is now, with Britain, America’s closest ally, despite some differences. The policy of annexing Canada has been shelved because not even America could afford the bill from the Crown, about $16 trillion. Canada is a federation of 13 provinces.

 

Land in Canada

Just 9.7% of the land of Canada is privately held. The majority of the land, 90.3%, is Crown Land, otherwise known as Public Land. Of this, 50% is Crown land administered by the Provincial governments and 40.3% is Crown land administered by the federal government.

Canada is on of the greatest land resources on the earth, and one of the most beautiful. There is more unused land in Canada than almost anywhere else on the planet. To give an indication of the relative size of Canada’s provinces are here ranked opposite the countries they are closest to in size with their associated populations.

 

Province

Acreage

Country

Acreage

Size rank in the world

Population

Of the comparative countries

Newfoundland/Labrador

100,127,885

Paraguay

100,510,720

59

5,356,000

Prince Edward Island

1,398,586

Brunei

1,424,640

166

350,000

Nova Scotia

13,794,110

Croatia

13,971,840

125

4,442,000

New Brunswick

18,015,566

Panama

18,660,480

117

3,116,000

Quebec

381,042,037

Mongolia

385,501,760

19

2,504,000

Ontario

265,977,204

Bolivia

271,464,960

28

9,025,000

Manitoba

160,070,638

Afghanistan

161,134,720

41

22,930,000

Saskatchewan

160,870,995

Afghanistan

161,134,720

41

22,930,000

Alberta

157,707,374

Somalia

157,568,640

42

9,480,000

British Columbia

233,440,018

Tanzania

233,536,000

31

29,984,000

Yukon

119,211,665

Turkmenistan

120,611,840

52

4,859,000

Northwest Territories

332,622,792

Peru

317,584,000

20

27,148,000

Nunavut

517,227,249

Mexico

485,407,360

15

104,214,000

Totals

2,461,506,119   2,428,511,680

Total Population

31,660,294

Census 2000.

246,338,000

The total acreage here is based on the sum of the Canadian provinces as officially cited in the Canadian Government web site. (2,467,264.640 acres) There is a difference of about 6 million acres between this total and the official size of Canada as cited in the Europa World Yearbook. This is a difference of 0.2% and is accounted for by variations in survey methods.

 

Principal uses of land in Canada:

National Parks

There are 43 National Parks in Canada, which cover a total of 55,465,548 acres, or 2.2% of the total area of Canada.

Agriculture

Farms cover a total of 166,798,546 acres in Canada. There are a total of 246,923 farms, with an average size of 674.5 acres. 235,131 farms covering a total of 62,359,984 acres are privately held. The remainder, covering 104,438,561acres, are rented or leased from others.

Private homes

There are a total of 11,562,975 dwellings in Canada. Of these, 7,417,525 are held in freehold tenure by the resident homeowner. 64% of Canadians hold their own home. Mining

Mining companies operate in all Canadian provinces. The main minerals mined are gold, copper, zinc, lead, coal, oil and natural gas. Most mining land is leased, on Crown leases.

Forestry

Forest and All Other Wooded Land in Canada

Provincial Portion by Province:

Province

Forest Land Owned by Each Province in acres

Newfoundland/Labrador

48,967,807

Prince Edward Island

56,833

Nova Scotia

3,148,054

New Brunswick

7,373,464

Quebec

185,092,726

Ontario

153,412,035

Manitoba

84,681,170

Saskatchewan

53,936,988

Alberta

80,386,572

British Columbia

152,300,085

Yukon

55,782,825

Northwest Territories

79,996,154

Nunavut

2,320,269

 

Federal (Total/Aboriginal/Other)

Province

Forest Land held by the Federal Government in Each Province in Acres

Aboriginal Land

Other Federal

Total

Newfoundland/Labrador

0

237,216

237,216

Prince Edward Island

0

2,471

(672,112)

Nova Scotia

22,239

266,868

289,107

New Brunswick

4,942

323,701

328,625

Quebec

607,866

378,063

985,929

Ontario

1,210,790

573,272

1,784,062

Manitoba

301,462

1,153,957

1,455,419

Saskatchewan

306,404

2,050,930

2,357,334

Alberta

570,801

6,278,811

6,849,612

British Columbia

560,917

1,087,240

1,648,157

Yukon

0

528,794

528,794

Northwest Territories

0

2,401,812

2,401,812

Nunavut

0

0

0

 

Private land (Total/Industrial, Nonindustrial)

Total

Privately held Land in acres

Industrial

Nonindustrial

Other

Total

Newfoundland/Labrador

165,557

0

217,448

383,005

Prince Edward Island

0

0

610,337

610,337

Nova Scotia

2,293,088

5,011,188

 

7,304,276

New Brunswick

3,170,293

4,462,626

0

7,632,919

Quebec

2,720,571

20,165,831

2,471

22,870,873

Ontario

1,564,143

11,836,090

155,673

13,555,906

Manitoba

0

2,456,174

271,810

2,727,984

Saskatchewan

0

0

3,644,725

3,644,725

Alberta

0

2,641,499

37,065

2,678,564

British Columbia

0

4,398,380

0

4,398,380

Yukon

0

0

0

0

Northwest Territories

0

0

0

0

Nunavut

0

0

0

0

 

Unclassified: 19,768 acres total (17,297 acres in Quebec and 2,471 acres in Alberta)

45% (45 percent – 1,031,889,600 acres) of Canada’s land area is forested.

71% of the forested land is held by provincial governments, 23% by federal and territorial governments, and 6% is privately held by approximately 425,000 private owners consisting of individuals, families, communities, and forest companies.

Forest companies often manage forests and engage in logging activities in a partnership with the government, rather than holding forest land in Canada. The government, or the public, actually holds the forest and simply leases it to various companies who do the logging and management in many cases.

Forest companies hold just over 1.5% of Canada’s wooded land.

 

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Page last changed: 2nd July 2007 @ 8:39 am